LiLaH (The Linguistic Landscape of Hate Speech in Social Media)


LiLaH (The Linguistic Landscape of Hate Speech in Social Media) is an FWO (Flemish NSF) and SSF (Slovenian Science Foundation) funded project focusing on building systems that can automatically recognize and analyse hate speech in social media texts. We are interested in the linguistic properties of the language that is being used to express hate in social media, specifically hate against migrants and LGBT people, and in automatically detecting it. The languages addressed are English, Dutch, Slovene, Croatian and French.

The project is a cooperation between The Centre for Computational Linguistics and Psycholinguistics (CLiPS) (University of Antwerp, Belgium), The Department of Translation (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia) and The Department of Knowledge Technologies (Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia).


Ljubljana Team

Antwerp Team

Nominations & awards

Tom De Smedt, 2019: nomination, monitoring online extremism, Research Grant, Auschwitz Foundation (1st)


The project ARRS N6-0099 and FWO G070619N: "The linguistic landscape of hate speech on social media", 2019 – 2023


W. Daelemans, D. Fišer, J. Franza, D. Kranjčić, J. Lemmens, N. Ljubešić, I. Markov, D. Popič (2020). The LiLaH Emotion Lexicon of Croatian, Dutch and Slovene. Slovenian language resource repository CLARIN.SI

Related work

E. Kotzé, B. A. Senekal, W. Daelemans (2020). Automatic classification of social media reports on violent incidents in South Africa using machine learning. South African Journal of Science. Vol. 116, No. 3–4, pp. 1–8

E. Kotzé, B. A. Senekal, W. Daelemans (2020). Exploring the Classification of Security Events using Sparse and Dense Representation of Text. International SAUPEC/RobMech/PRASA Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 1–6

N. Ljubešić, D. Fišer, T. Erjavec (2019). The FRENK Datasets of Socially Unacceptable Discourse in Slovene and English. arXiv preprint arXiv:1906.02045

S. Jaki, T. De Smedt, M. Gwóźdź, R. Panchal, A. Rossa, G. De Pauw (2019). Online hatred of women in the forum: Linguistic analysis and automatic detection. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 240–268

S. Jaki, T. De Smedt (2018). Right-wing German Hate Speech on Twitter: Analysis and Automatic Detection. arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.07518

T. De Smedt, S. Jaki, E. Kotzé, L. Saoud, M. Gwóźdź, G. De Pauw, W. Daelemans (2018). Multilingual Cross-domain Perspectives on Online Hate Speech

P. Fortuna, S. Nunes (2018). A survey of automatic detection of hate speech in text. ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 51, No. 4, article 85